The ketogenic diet, once it became known to the general public, immediately attracted attention and became a favorite of show business stars. Doctors, nutritionists, doctors and athletes have not yet reached a consensus on its impact and effectiveness, but the number of dieters is growing year by year.
What is the keto diet?
The Keto Dietis a low carb, high fat, and moderate protein diet.
The nutrient intake of the daily diet is divided as follows:
- not more than 10% carbohydrate;
- 50-60% fat;
- 30-40% protein.
Due to the low carbohydrate content of the daily menu, the body converts lipids into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The latter enter the brain and serve as a source of energy instead of glucose. This process is called ketosis, hence the name diet.
The essence of the keto diet
The special feature of the diet is the absolute exclusion of fast-digesting carbohydrates and most of the complex, as well as caffeinated beverages. The diet is based on fatty meats and saturated fats.
This eating style introduces the body to a state of stress in which acetone (ketone bodies) are dynamically produced. The latter, in turn, helps to suppress appetite. In the case of ketosis, the body is forced to rebuild the burning of the subcutaneous fat layer.
Initially, this diet was not designed to combat obesity. It was thought to be an excellent aid in the treatment and rehabilitation of certain diseases in the postoperative period.
Suitable for those who want to quickly lose some of the sensations of subcutaneous fat, for athletes seeking a relieved body, and for use in the rehabilitation of patients with epilepsy and oncology. This nutritional technique is a rather complex and delicate process.
Based on the following principles:
- minimizing the amount of carbohydrates consumed;
- Strict control of sugar and starch entering the body;
- maintaining drinking balance;
- moderate physical activity;
- Maintaining a 60% fat ratio in your daily diet; protein to fat ratio 1: 2;
- Seamless entry and exit from the diet.
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Based on the above principles, the basic rules are logically formed, according to which lifestyle changes must be made so that adherence to the keto diet is not such an ill-considered and uncontrolled process that can significantly worsen the condition of the body.
So, the rules of the diet:
- Decreases in the amount of carbohydrates in the daily diet occur during the first 8-14 days.
- The number of main meals is at least 5 per day, but 7 is already a lot.
- 3, eat every 5-4 hours.
- Keep track of the dose - keep it small.
- Snacks should be avoided between sanctioned meals.
- The effect of diet is only due to its strict adherence.
- It is necessary to increase the amount of clean water consumed to 3 liters per day.
- Those who want to follow this diet method without medical indications need professional consultation.
- Don't worry about the amount of lipids in your daily menu - with this eating style, they are the main source of energy for the human body.
- The intensity of physical activity should not be too high.
- In order to get into ketosis as soon as possible, some people practice fasting. Such a radical method is possible, but only if there are no contraindications and a completely healthy and strong body.
Dieting on the keto diet means avoiding certain foods and vigorously "leaning towards others. "In order to better control and calculate the amount of nutrients to be supplied, the following tables show the desirable and prohibited foods.
List of Food Products Permissions:
- meat products, poultry;
- fish, seafood;
- sausage, mayonnaise;
- certain types of vegetables, herbs;
- dried fruits, nuts;
- milk, eggs; oils, fats;
- non-alcoholic beverages.
When a ketogenic diet is strictly forbidden:
- starchy vegetables;
- pasta and flour products, flour;
- certain types of fruits and juices;
- soda water and caffeinated beverages;
- sweet milk and alcoholic beverages.
Diet to initiate and maintain ketosis
The essence of a ketogenic diet, as mentioned earlier, is that the body replaces glycolysis with lipolysis. Simply put, it “changed” from breaking down carbs to breaking down fat. This process is called ketosis.
When the amount of carbohydrates consumed per day reaches a minimum of 50 g, the formation of ketones begins. From this moment on, the body draws energy from the fat cells and the process of weight loss begins.
Ketosis does not enter immediately. It takes the body almost a week to transition to the desired lipolysis.
This happens in four stages:
- Section 1. Unconditional glucose intake.Within half a day after the last meal prepared, the body consumes glucose.
- Section 2. Glycogen processing.After glucose, the body moves to glycogen stores from the liver and muscles. This takes almost 48 hours.
- Section 3. Processing of fats and proteins.Once the body has run out of carbohydrates from which energy has returned, it switches to the synthesis of muscle fibers and fatty acids. This is the most difficult step on the road to ketone formation.
- Section 4. Fat consumption.Ketosis itself. When the body gets used to the minimum carbohydrate and the protein burning process slows down, the consumption of fatty acids begins.
The diet of active fat burning and the maintenance of ketosis accordingly is based on the principle of absolute benefit of the menu.
- fats - 60-75%;
- proteins - 25-35%;
- carbohydrates - up to 10%.
Note thatcannot stop calorie counting.The keto diet, like other nutritional practices, requires nutrient management. Especially if the purpose of observing weight loss.
You can use a simple calculation to calculate your daily amount of nutrients: 1 g of protein per kilogram of body weight and the percentage of carbohydrates and fats.
For example, if a person weighs 80 kg, they need 80 g of protein, 300 g of lipid and 20 g of carbon per day. If you feel weak during the transition period (first week), you can increase the number of grams of the last nutrient, up to a maximum of 50 units.
There is no fundamental gender difference in the design of a proper diet. Basically, if you don’t take into account the type of keto diet, the women’s and men’s menus are different in the amount of protein consumed. Men need more nutrients to maintain muscle mass.
Sample from the weekly Keto diet menu
For men, an approximate budget menu looks like this:
|1||First:omelette - 80 g, beef - 120 g, tea - 120 g
Second:chicken breast - 130 g, vegetable salad - 130 g, jelly -230 g
Third:cottage cheese - 160 g
fourth: fried fish with herbs - 120 g, brown rice - 80 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 200 g
|2||First:brown rice pudding - 160 g, toast, tea - 120 g
Second:meat pepper - 240 g, zrazy chicken - 80 g, cabbage salad- 80 g, gel - 150 g
Third:protein shake - 300 g
fourth:sea salad - 180 g, toast with cheese - 70 g, tea - 200 g
|3||First:Scrambled eggs with ham - 150 g, croutons - 15 g, tea - 120 g
Second:chicken soup - 180 g, beef pendants - 90 g, vegetable salad - 140 g, tea - 180 g
Third:cheese - 80 g
Fourth:oven-baked mushrooms - 120 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:unsweetened kefir - 230 g
|4||First:steamed fish cakes - 160 g, vegetable salad - 130 g, tea - 120 g
Second:beets - 270 g, meat salad - 110 g, jelly - 100 g
Third:omelette - 120 g
fourth:red fish - 110 g, toasted cheese - 60 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 250 g
|5||First: boiled eggs - 3 pieces, fried fillets - 120 g, vegetable salad - 110 g, tea - 120 g
Second:puree soup - 260 g, meat salad - 130g, gel - 200 g
Third:rosehip tincture - 250 g, grated - 20 g
fourth: fried fish - 180 g, vegetable salad - 120 g, tea - 200 g
|6||First:omelette - 120 g, cottage cheese - 110 g, tea - 120 g
Second:fish soup - 260 g, vegetable salad - 130 g, chicken slices - 80 g, tea - 200 g
Third:green apple puree - 70 g
fourth:sea salad - 160 g, boiled chicken - 110 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:protein shake - 200 g
|7||First:casserole with mushrooms - 180 g, croutons - 10 g, tea - 200 g
Second:chicken soup - 160 g, beef slices - 160 g, vegetable salad - 80 g, jelly - 200 g
Third:cottage cheese - 80 g
fourth: boiled fish - 130 g, vegetable salad - 110 g, tea - 200 g
Fifth:unsweetened kefir - 180 g
Sample menu for women:
|1||First:omelette - 130 g, meat salad - 130 g, tea - 120 g
Second:broth - 210 g, steamed brown rice with vegetables - 180 g
Third:cheese - 60 g
fourth: fried fish - 150 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth: Fermented Fried Milk - 250 g
|2||First:fish slice - 80 g, toasted ham - 75 g, rosehip tea - 130 g
Second:beetroot - 200 g, fish slice - 75 g, meat salad - 125 g
Third:Avocado - 50 g
fourth:beef entrecotes - 180 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:unsweetened kefir - 230 g
|3||First:scrambled eggs with ham - 80 g, salad with cucumber and eggs - 120 g, tea - 120 g
Second: poultry soup - 210 g, rabbit slices - 110 g, fresh vegetables- 80 g
Third:omelette - 160 g
fourth: fried fish - 90 g, pumpkin potato pancakes - 130 g, jelly - 150 g
Fifth:kefir - 230 g
|4||First: boiled eggs - 3 pieces, meat salad - 160 g, walnuts - 30 g
Second:fish soup - 230 g, meat pendants - 80 g, vegetable salad - 110 g
Third:cheese - 60 g
fourth:beef pate - 60 g, cucumber salad - 120 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth: Fermented Fried Milk - 250 g
|5||First:turkey fillet - 120 g, meat salad - 110 g, green tea - 120 g
Second:vegetable puree soup - 170 g, fried fish with brown rice -170 g
Third:walnuts –30 g
fourth: fried mushrooms with ham and vegetables - 230 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:green tea - 220 g
|6||First:cottage cheese - 130 g, rosehip tea - 130 g
Second:chicken broth - 130 g, pork chop in cheese pasta - 120 g
Third:Avocado - 50 g
fourth:sausage, ham, tea - 220 g
Fifth:kefir - 230 g
|7||First:omelette - 120 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, green tea - 120 g
Second: mushroom soup with meat - 160 g, fried fish - 80 g, vegetable salad -100 g
Third:cheese - 80 g
Fourth:cabbage rolls - 180 g, tea - 220 g
Fifth:green tea - 200 g
This diet is not "hungry", so choosing and combining foods is not difficult. Here are some recipes that are easy enough to make and still suffer from ketosis.
Special loaf of bread
- eggs - 3 squirrels;
- Almond flour - 0. 25 cups
- water - 0, 25 cups;
- chopped plantain - 50 g;
- baking powder - 10 g;
- apple cider vinegar - 10 g;
- sea salt - 5 g;
- sesame seeds (optional).
- mix flour, plantain and baking powder;
- bring the water to a boil, pour into a bowl with dry ingredients;
- add proteins and vinegar;
- mix the mass with a mixer for 2-3 minutes until it is suitable for sculpture;
- to form future bread in any form;
- place them on a greased baking sheet;
- Sprinkle the top with sesame seeds and place in the oven;
- Bake at 200 degrees on the bottom shelf for about an hour;
- readiness is determined by tapping the bottom of the loaf;
- the finished bread gives an "empty" sound.
Salmon fried with asparagus
- salmon (fillet) - 1000 g; asparagus - 130 g;
- mushrooms - 250 g;
- onion - 40 g;
- garlic - 3 cloves;
- soy sauce - 300 ml;
- sesame oil - 10 g; butter - 20 g;
- Basil - 3 years
- mix soy sauce, basil and garlic;
- cut the fish fillet into pieces, put in an airtight bag, pour the resulting spicy sauce;
- and marinate in the refrigerator for 60 minutes;
- preheat the oven to 180 degrees;
- after the time, place a baking sheet covered with foil with fish and asparagus;
- cook for 20 minutes;
- during this time, fry the mushrooms and onions in a pan;
- then pour this mixture over the cooking fish;
- Bake for another 10 minutes.
Chicken with casserole cheese and olives
- chicken (breast) - 700 g;
- pesto sauce - 90 g;
- cream (whipped) - 400 ml; olive oil (pickled) - 200 g;
- feta cheese - 250 g;
- garlic -1 wedge;
- oil for frying;
- oil (olive) - 40 g;
- salt (sea) - 10 g.
- rinse the meat, cut into pieces, salt;
- fry until golden brown on both sides;
- Mix cream and pesto in a bowl;
- put the chicken in the baking tray;
- topped with chopped garlic, olives and cheese;
- Pour cream sauce;
- bake in a 200 degree oven for half an hour;
- when the edge of the pot becomes sandy, you can take it out - the casserole is ready.
- beef - 2 pieces, without bone;
- onions - 1 pc;
- garlic - 1 wedge;
- tomatoes - 2 pcs;
- vinegar (cider) - 50 g;
- oil (olive) - 30 g;
- ground ginger - 7 g;
- salt (sea) - 2 g.
- rinse the meat, making shallow cuts on top of the steak;
- peel the onion, cut into small cubes;
- Chop the tomatoes;
- Place the steaks in a preheated pan greased with olive oil;
- brown on both sides over medium heat;
- then add tomato cubes, onions and crushed garlic to the meat;
- Bake, stirring occasionally, for 5-7 minutes;
- put ginger in a separate bowl, salt, pour out vinegar;
- add the resulting sauce to the meat, mix;
- ignite minimum intensity;
- cook under closed lid until liquid evaporates; When serving, sprinkle with
The effectiveness of the keto diet
As mentioned, there is no consensus on the effectiveness of this diet. The keto diet is controversial. It has contraindications, advantages and disadvantages. Not suitable for everyone.
But one thing is for sure - by following the proper rules and principles of nutrition, a person on a ketogenic diet is “doomed” to lose 1-3 kg of weight per week. It is widely used by celebrities to get rid of extra centimeters, to create a body of relief for athletes, and is also prescribed for certain diseases.
To increase the effectiveness of your diet, it's a good idea to follow a few rules:
- Choose a complex of vitamins and mineralsto support your body.
- It is mandatory to undergo a medical examinationto ensure that there are no contraindications to this eating style. The ketogenic diet, with a few exceptions, requires "iron" health.
- Carefully analyze the possibility of extracting certain products.If you can't limit yourself to eating bread or pasta, for example, it's better to choose a different diet so that you don't get even more stressed.
- When rebuilding your metabolic process in the first or second week, try to make your lifestyle a non-fanatical activityand don’t plan too much physical and mental stress. When the body enters a ketotic state, it is unlikely that any athletic performance and mental performance will increase.
- It takes time and expertise to get used to proper cooking while sticking to keto.Therefore, you should try to plan your day so that there is no possibility of "unauthorized" snacks.
- To minimize the negative effects of diet, remember to include it in a fiber-rich diet.They improve and normalize the digestive system.
- The unpleasant odor of acetone is unlikely to be avoided, so it is recommended to double the intake of clean water.Proper water management is the key to effective weight loss.
- Maintaining electrolyte balance is just as important in getting rid of excess centimeter body fat.Slightly salted foods not only improve the taste of the food, but also have a positive effect on well-being.
Based on the tasks (be it weight loss, drying, weight gain, etc. ), the required diet option is selected.
Classic (normal or basic)
- This type is considered to be the most common and simplest diet.
- The diet is high in fat, moderate in protein and has extremely minimal carbohydrates.
- Recommended for people who have little or no physical activity.
- This means adding carbs to your diet, but at certain hours and in certain amounts.
- So-called carbohydrate loads occur on training days.
- Carbohydrates are consumed during (before and after training) to increase stamina and intensity.
- Carbohydrates are reduced to a minimum (0, 5 or 1 g / kg body weight) on days off to maintain ketosis, and fat levels are slightly reduced so as not to exceed the caloric content of the daily diet.
- This is the "special" option. This means periodic carbohydrate feeding.
- Interruption between carbohydrate stores depends on the goals, objectives, and intensity of the exercise.
- At the same time, the weight of fat in the diet decreases, the amount of protein increases and 7-10 g of carbon per 1 kg of own weight.
- Download time is between 8 and 36 hours.
- Intervals can be increased depending on body condition.
- Recommended for people with high levels of physical activity who feel weak due to a lack of carbohydrates.
- who want to lose weight, dry out, gain muscle mass;
- in epilepsy;
- for oncological diseases.
- This eating technique is not "hungry". Feelings of hunger are extremely rare.
- Altering your metabolism through ketosis helps you lose weight faster than other methods.
- There is no clear order in which the menu is designed, the dishes are quite varied. You just have to follow the nutrient intake formula.
- Proven adherence to the keto diet in cancer, epilepsy and other diseases.
- The glycemic index of the whitelisted diet is low. Consuming them in food has a positive therapeutic effect and helps treat acne.
- The likelihood of muscle loss and a high percentage of subcutaneous fat burning is very low.
In addition to the positive effects of following a keto diet, this technique is not disadvantageous either:
- Diet imbalance.
- Acetone odor from mouth, skin.
- When you enter ketosis, you often feel nausea, fatigue, lethargy, and concentration problems.
- There are contraindications.
- Frequent constipation (or other intestinal problems) due to a lack of essential vegetables and fruits in the diet.
The ketogenic diet
This nutritional technique was originally invented to treat epileptic seizures in adults and children.
Doctors have found that ketogens are produced in the body during the processing of fats, and it is they who are able to reduce the frequency of seizures in children and adults with epilepsy.
Because the diet is unbalanced and fatty foods can lead to liver and kidney problems, experts are skeptical about this eating style. In medical practice, his appointment has an equal number of positive and extremely negative results.
The use of a ketogenic diet by epileptics should only be decided by a specialist. The treatment is carried out under the strict supervision of a doctor!
Studies have shown that the combination of classical therapy and a ketogenic diet in cancer patients reduces the risk of metastases and disease recurrence by 75%.
Unlike patients who usually eat, proponents of the keto diet feel better, the body recovers faster, and treatment shows a positive trend. The state of ketosis deprives cancer cells of energy, starving them, which significantly improves the effectiveness of radiation and chemotherapy.
As noted above, the keto diet has several contraindications.
You can't insist when:
- breastfeeding and pregnancy;
- high cholesterol;
- diabetes mellitus;
- diseases of the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, heart;
- lipid indigestion;
- Hormonal disorders.
The positive effects of this eating style are manifested in different ways, depending on the individual body. Depending on the type of diet you choose, 5-10 kg of weight loss is likely in the first month.
To save the result, follow a few simple rules:
- In order to maintain the result and after the keto diet has not been put in a state of stress, you should gradually exit this diet.
- Don’t bump into forbidden foods in your diet- the risk of returning pounds in double volume is too high.
- The amount of fat in your diet should be gradually reducedand 5 g of carbohydrate should be added daily.
- With proper adherence to a ketogenic diet and periodic medical examinationnot only is it possible to improve external data by getting rid of excess weight, but also to radically change the quality of life in a positive direction.
For some, the result will appear in the second week, while for others it will take up to three months. This time lag does not indicate that the diet is ineffective - in all likelihood, the nutrient ratio of the diet needs to be adjusted.